Sunzi bingfa 孫子兵法 "The Art of War by Master Sun"
The Art of War is the most popular military classic in both Asia and the West. By Japanese managers it was even employed as guideline for war inside the economic market. It is ttributed to the semi-legendary Sun Wu 孫武 (6th cent BC), a strategist of the state of Wu 吳, but considering different secondary sources about him and the influence of Daoist conceptions may result in the conclusion that he was from the traditonal state of military thinkers, that is Qi 齊. Recently a copy of Sunzi Bingfa was recoverd form a Han period 漢 tomb in Linyi, including significant additional material such as the King of Wus questions.
The chapters are:
|1.始計 Shiji Laying plans|
2.作戰 Zuozhan Waging war
3.謀攻 Mougong Attack by stratagem
4.軍形 Junxing Tactical dispositions
5.兵勢 Bingshi Energy
6.虛實 Xushi Weak points and strong
7.軍爭 Junzheng Maneuvring
8.九變 Jiubian Nine variations in tactics
9.行軍 Xingjun The army on the march
10.地形 Dixing Terrain
11.九地 Jiudi The nine situations
12.火攻 Huogong The attack by fire
13.用間 Yongjian The use of spies
1. Sun Tzu said: The art of war is of vital importance to the State.
2. It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected.
3. The art of war, then, is governed by five constant factors, to be taken into account in one's deliberations, when seeking to determine the conditions obtaining in the field. These are: (1) The Moral Law; (2) Heaven; (3) Earth; (4) The Commander; (5) Method and discipline.
4. The Moral Law causes the people to be in complete accord with their ruler, so that they will follow him regardless of their lives, undismayed by any danger.
5. Heaven signifies night and day, cold and heat, times and seasons.
6. Earth comprises distances, great and small; danger and security; open ground and narrow passes; the chances of life and death.
7. The Commander stands for the virtues of wisdom, sincerely, benevolence, courage and strictness.
8. By method and discipline are to be understood the marshaling of the army in its proper subdivisions, the graduations of rank among the officers, the maintenance of roads by which supplies may reach the army, and the control of military expenditure.
9. These five heads should be familiar to every general: he who knows them will be victorious; he who knows them not will fail...
15. According as circumstances are favorable, one should modify one's plans.
16. All warfare is based on deception.
17. Hence, when able to attack, we must seem unable; when using our forces, we must seem inactive; when we are near, we must make the enemy believe we are far away; when far away, we must make him believe we are near.
18. Hold out baits to entice the enemy. Feign disorder, and crush him.
19. If he is secure at all points, be prepared for him. If he is in superior strength, evade him.
20. If your opponent is of choleric temper, seek to irritate him. Pretend to be weak, that he may grow arrogant.
21. If he is taking his ease, give him no rest. If his forces are united, separate them.
22. Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where you are not expected...
24. Now the general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his temple ere the battle is fought. The general who loses a battle makes but few calculations beforehand. Thus do many calculations lead to victory, and few calculations to defeat: how much more no calculation at all! It is by attention to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose.