Tsushima

Publié le par Tiger LEE

Tsushima (対馬, Korean Daema) was a province of Japan until the abolition of provinces and establishment of prefectures. Tsushima is an island belonging to Japan, situated about midway between Korea and the island of Kyushu, so that the island was used as a port of call in former times by vessels plying between Japan and Korea. The nearest port on the Korean coast at Busan is 49.5 km away and the nearest Japanese port of Fukuoka is 147 km away. It has an area of 262 km². It is divided at the waist by a deep sound (Aso-wan), and the southern section has two hills, Yatachi-yama and Shira-dake, 2130 ft. and 1680 ft. high respectively, while the northern section has Ibeshi-yama and Mi-take, whose heights are 1128 ft. and 1598 ft. The chief town is Izuhara.

The inhabitants of the islands were apparently Japanese, speaking Japanese dialects. Since ancient times, the islands have belonged to Japan as her province, though some of the earliest colonizers of the island are believed to be former subjects of the fallen Korean kingdom Baekje during the late 7th century. The island remained sparsely populated and served as a key trading port, being influenced by both Korea and Japan. In the 13th century, the Mongols who established dominance over Goryeo in Korea, sent their armada to Tsushima, where they wrought great destruction to the island in 1274 and 1281. However, the Mongols were halted from further aggression into Japan.

After the withdrawal of Mongol influence from Goryeo in Korea, the island became a haven for pirates, who took advantage of the constant trade between Korea and Japan. In 1419, King Sejong of Joseon in Korea ordered his trusted general Lee Jong Mu to clear the island of these pirates. At this time, Tsushima came under the sphere of influence of Joseon.

In the late 16th century, as Toyotomi Hideyoshi united the various feudal barons under his control and looked to unite all factions with a common cause, he looked to invade Joseon. In preparation for this war, Tsushima became the main naval base for this invasion. From this point, Japan developed a strong foothold in Tsushima.

After peace was re-established between the two nations--after Japan's invasion attempts failed due to Ming China's involvement in support of Joseon--the island once again became a port for merchants to dock their ships. Both Joseon and Tokugawa shogunate sent their trading representatives to Tsushima to govern trade. Japanese rule was slowly established as Joseon had no intention of colonizing the island following its policy of leaving islands uninhabited. During the late 19th century, the Meiji government of Japan officially incorporated the island into its country.

During the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, the famous Russian Baltic fleet under Admiral Rozhdestvensky, which made a nearly year-long trip to East Asia from the Baltic coast, was crushed by the Japanese under Admiral Togo Heihachiro at the Battle of Tsushima.

After World War II, there arose a movement in South Korea to claim Tsushima, touting its historical relations to the various kingdoms of Korea. This was made most evident when President Syngman Rhee, in a beginning-of-the-year press conference in 1949, formally requested that Japan return the island to Korean rule. However, this claim was never seriously considered by the military government of General Douglas MacArthur. With the outbreak of Korean War the next year and the economic struggles that South Korea faced in the following decade, talk of any territorial dispute disappeared.

Today, Tsushima is part of Nagasaki prefecture of Japan. On March 1, 2004 the 6 towns on the island including Izuhara were unified to create Tsushima city.

Tsushima is the closest Japanese territory to Korea.

歴史

(書きかけ。対馬藩などの記述と重複します。)

対海国

魏志倭人伝によれば、対海国は山が険しく、深い森が多く、道路は禽鹿の徑のようであった。千余戸があった。良い田がなく、海の物を食べて自活し、船に乗り南北と交易した。

平安・鎌倉時代

阿比留氏などの在庁官人が支配。その後、大宰府少弐氏の被官宗氏が全島を統一した。

1274年以降二度に渡って元寇の襲来を受け、高麗兵によって住民の男達は虐殺され、女達は手に穴を開けられ紐を通して繋がれ奴隷として連れ去られた。

室町・戦国・安土桃山時代

13世紀頃

少弐氏が大内氏によって大宰府を追われると、宗貞盛は九州に出兵して大内氏と戦った。 しかし、少弐氏が滅亡したので対馬に戻った。

倭寇の主要根拠地の一つとされ、この制圧を名目として李氏朝鮮軍が1419年(応永26年)に大規模な侵攻を行い、宗氏との1ヶ月にわたる戦闘の後撤退した(応永の外寇)。その後、宗氏は1443年に朝鮮と嘉吉条約を結んで形式的に朝鮮の臣下となり、以後、日朝間の窓口となった。

14~15世紀 豊臣秀吉の朝鮮出兵の時、戦争回避のため奔走した。開戦後は釜山と名護屋城との中継地となった。

関ヶ原の戦いでは西軍だったものの、領土を安堵された。

江戸時代

宗氏を藩主とする対馬藩(10万石格)が幕末まで支配した。

柳川事件 対馬藩は幕府と李氏朝鮮との関係を保つため、しばしば国書を改竄した。それを有力家臣の柳川氏が告発した事件。

Sources :

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsushima_Province

http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/察銬囜

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