Goryeong Gaya 고령가야 古寧伽倻 was one of the lesser chiefdoms of the Gaya confederation during the Korean Three Kingdoms period. It was centered in present-day Sangju City, North Gyeongsang province, South Korea. Legend indicates that it was founded by a King Taejo, to whom a tomb on Obong Mountain in Hamchang-eup, Sangju, is attributed.
An alliance of marriage was established between Silla and Goryeong Gaya in 522. For this reason, Goryeong Gaya did not participate in the Baekje-Daegaya offensive against Silla in 538. However, it does not appear that this alliance was of any lasting benefit to the kingdom. According to both the Samguk Sagi and the Japanese chronicle Nihonshoki, Goryeong Gaya fell to Silla in 562. This was the same year that Daegaya was overrun in the south.
The members of today's Hamchang Kim lineage trace their origins to the kings of Goryeong Gaya.
Bihwa Gaya 비화가야 非火伽倻 , also known as Bijabal, was one of the kingdoms of the Gaya confederacy. It was based near the modern city center of Changnyeong County in South Gyeongsang province, South Korea. It was conquered by Silla in the 6th century, before 555.
Bihwa Gaya is mentioned in the Goryeo Saryak and under the name "Bijabal" in the Japanese chronicle Nihonshoki. It may have arisen from the 3rd century Jinhan state of Bulsaguk (불사국, 不斯國) which was probably also located in Changnyeong. Archeological evidence suggests a close relationship between Bihwa Gaya and nearby Silla, although as part of the Gaya confederacy Bihwa would frequently have been at war with Silla.
The royal tombs of Bihwa Gaya are located in Gyo-dong, Changnyeong-eup, in Changnyeong County. Some of these tombs were excavated during the period of Japanese occupation in 1918, but all records of that excavation have been lost. In 1973, a team of researchers from Busan's Dong-A University excavated several remaining tombs. These tombs appear to have been constructed in the 5th century. Some of them show indications of live burial of members of the royal household. In 1996, a museum focused on the relics of the Bihwa Gaya period opened adjacent to the tombs.
Ara Gaya 아라가야 阿羅伽倻, also known as Asiryangguk (아시량국, 阿尸良國), Ana Gaya (아나가야, 阿羅伽倻), and Alla (안라, 安羅) was a kingdom of the Gaya confederacy, in modern day Haman County of South Korea. As the confrontational foreign policy of Daegaya failed, Ara Gaya and its less confrontational policy gained support in 540s.
By the 6th century, Gaya could not risk hostility of either Baekje or Silla. Ara Gaya put a great deal of effort into pursuing a diplomatic solution for maintaining its independence, including hostage of international meetings with Baekje, Silla and Japan.
But Gaya was too weak by that time; Northwestern Gaya states fell to Baekje influence and southeastern Gaya states fell to Silla influence. Ara Gaya sought its independence by allying with Goguryeo and asked Goguryeo to invade Baekje in 548. But this attempt to weaken Baekje influence failed as Goguryeo failed this campaign.