Most of the southern Korean fortresses had fallen to the Japanese advances. As the invaders pressed towards the capital, many Koreans formed makeshift units in an attempt to delay the advancing enemy. On 24 April a force of 900 Koreans under Yi IL attempted to block the Japanese advance at Sanju. However, his position was flanked by Konishi, causing Yi and his men to panic and flee. The Japanese pursued them and caught them. All were put to the sword.
The road to Seoul lay open again, however, the pass of Choryong represented an obstacle for the Japanese. The pass was a great place to lay an ambush-a virtual death-trap. An army of 16,000 Koreans under general Shin-Nip had staged themselves to defend the pass. The news of Sanju disheartened the general and he withdrew to another position north of Ch'ungju castle. Meanwhile, the Japanese advanced unopposed through the pass.
Shin repositioned his troops just outside of Ch'ungju on a hill called T'angumdae. The position was a good one: it was flanked by rice paddies and protected in the rear by the Kan and Tatsu Rivers. It was a great place for his cavalry to maneuver. Around 2 in the afternoon the Japanese reached the outskirts of Ch'ungju and saw the Korean flags atop T'amgumade.
Konishi prepared his men for battle. He divided the army into four; on the right was Matsuura Shigenobu with 3,000 men, on the left was So Yoshitomo with 5,000 men, and in the center was Konishi with 7,000 men. Keeping pressure on Ch'ungju castle was 3,700 under Arima, Omura, and Goto.
The Japanese advanced towards the Korean positions. On the flanks the units of So and Matsuura remained close to the sides of the valley so that they could fire down on the enemy. Shin led his cavalry in a charge on the Japanese, but they were unable to penetrate the Japanese lines. The numerous arquebusiers inflicted many casualties on the horsemen and they were forced to flee. The Japanese began encircling the Koreans, who began to flee. Shin knew it was only a matter of time before the army was caught. He turned his horse around and fled, followed by his army. Meanwhile, the Japanese overran the rest of the Koreans.
The Japanese pursued, killing 3,000 and taking hundreds prisoner. Shin himself was caught and beheaded. With the only standing army in Korea destroyed, the garrison of Ch'ungju surrendered. News of the battle reached Seoul and the city was evacuated. Shortly thereafter the Japanese entered the deserted capital.
The Japanese army led by Konishi Yukinaga marched north toward the capital Seoul (then called Hansong). They beat the meager defenders at Sangju and at Ch'ungju, little reduced from its original strength of 18,000, faced the 8,000-strong Koreans. Korean cavalry was put to rout by the volleys of the Japanese arquebus.
at the time of the japanese invasion of korea in 1592, it took place in a miserable battle in neighborhood of "Tangumdae" between korean and an invader, Japanese.
This Tangumdae battle resulted in the defeat of Korean army and caused a number of the dead and the injured. The General of Korean Army was Shillip.
He was an able general. but, made an serious tactical error in Tangumdae battle.
His tactic was a fight with his troops back to the namhankang and the cliff of Tangumdae, using cavalry soldiers as main force.
such a kind of tactic was not effective for the japanese armed with a volley of rifle
in the field of Tangudae. Although Korean army fought bravely for their country( Chosun dynasty), they could not defeat the strong japanese army with a volly of rifle.
In the end, the General Shillip also jumped in the Namhankag( Han river) to killl himself.
Favorable as the defiles of the great Choriong were for a stand against the foe, Shin Ip and Yi Iri determined to mass their
troops at the city of Choung Chu, instead of occupying the almost impregnable position the Pass afforded them.
Accordingly ShiuIp marched across into the province of Choung Chung westerly ; he took op a position with a river at his back,-a pitce of generalship that is hard to match even among the examples of stupidity afforded by the records of this invasion . The Japanese approached in two columns and closing in on the Koreans, had them in a trap. At the first onslaught they were thrown into a rout and then forced into the river at their backs, which was soon covered with the
floating bodies of dead Koreans. The slaughter among the Koreans was frightful, the force being almost entirely annihilated, ,Shin lp paying for his stupid generalship with his life . Yi Iri, however, escaped with his life, and after many adventures managed to acquaint Sdul with news of the disaster and the circumstances of the death of General Shin lp .
The Koreans report their losses in this battle as over ten thousand slain ; no prisoners were made by either party.
With Choson enmeshed in factional squabbling, Hideyoshi readied his forces to move into Choson. From his headquarters in Hizen, Hideyoshi mobilized seven fully-equipped divisions, nearly 150,000 men and gathered a fleet of some 700 ships, transport vessels, naval ships and small craft to move his army across the Tsushima Strait. Many of the approximately 9,000 seamen who manned the Hideyoshi's fleet were reportedly former pirates. From their advanced staging area on Tsushima Island, an expeditionary force of three divisions (51,000 men) sailed for the south Choson coast near the end of May 1592 : 11,000 men under General Kuroda Nagamasa, 18,000 men under the leadership of General Konishi Yukinaga, a Christian born of a merchant family from Sakai, and 22,000 men commanded by General Kato Kiyomasa, a Buddhist "mustang" officer who rose from the ranks with Hideyoshi.
Pusan garrison troops under the command of Chong Pal manned beachhead defensive positions around Pusan To the north, a few miles inland at the small town of Tongnae, town magistrate Song Sang-hyon commanded a small civil defense force. General Konishi reached the port of Pusan a full five days ahead of generals Kato and Kuroda.The Japanese surprised and quickly overwhelmed the badly outnumbered defenders in both Pusan and Tongnae. Despite bravely defending the beachhead areas to the death, Choson's garrison troops proved no match for Japanese soldiers armed with short-range brass cannon and matchlock muskets. Moreover, they faced an army with extensive combat experience, men already bloodied from the many campaigns of Japan's Warring States period.
The combined Japanese army was too large to advance along a single route, particularly since the troops would have to live off the land. The Japanese left Pusan in three separate columns, opening a three-pronged northward assault toward the capital in Seoul. By messenger and beacon fires, reports of the invasion quickly reached the Yi court in Seoul along with reports of the many towns captured by the Japanese. Stunned by the news, King Sonjo's government panicked. The Border Defense Command quickly issued orders to call up the scattered remnants of the Choson army.
The government placed its hopes on the talents of General Sin Ip, a tough military fighter who had won earlier fame in successful campaigns against the Jurchen in the northern provinces. General Sin received orders to take all the men he could muster and contain the Japanese in the Naktong River basin by blocking the three mountain passes leading out of Kyongsang Province. Sin mustered a few thousand untrained men armed only with spears, bows and arrows. The leadership of this ragged group was even worse than the condition of the troops. Well before his small force reached the first of the mountain passes, General Sin received disturbing, detailed reports describing the Japanese army's battle prowess. Instead of taking the high ground, where tens of men could defend against thousands, the doughty general decided to wait for the advancing Japanese behind a strong defensive position established on an open plain near the city of Ch'ungju, where he felt his men would fight better than in the mountains.
General Kuroda's division swept westward through the Sobaek Range over the Ch'up'ungyong Pass and proceeded north through the western provinces toward Seoul. General Konishi's division moved virtually unopposed up the center of Kyongsang Province. Meanwhile, General Kato's division, the third prong of the Japanese assault, drove north from Pusan toward Kyongju, turned northwestward, then linked up with Konishi in the valley near Ch'ungju. After crossing the undefended Oryong Pass, Konishi's soldiers moved into the lower Han River valley, where the Japanese met their first strong resistance from General Sin Ip's rag-tag army. In the bitter and bloody fight that ensued, Japanese troops overran the Ch'ungju defenders and killed General Sin. The two Japanese divisions continued their march toward Seoul along two different routes. The main objective of the assault on Korea was plunder. The Japanese deployed six special units with orders to steal books, maps, paintings, craftsmen (especially potters) and their handicrafts, people to be enslaved, precious metals, national treasures, and domestic animals. Meeting little resistance, the Japanese ravaged the civilian population. Entire villages were swept up in the raids. Japanese merchants sold some to Portuguese merchants anchored offshore and took the rest to Japan.