Yan State Rulers

Publié le par Tiger LEE

Rulers of Yan

Rulers of Yan
Capitals: Ji 薊 (or Yan 匽 or Beiyan 北燕; modern Beijing), Linyi 臨易 (modern Xiongxian 雄縣/Hebei)
Yan Shaogong 燕召公 "Shao Gong Shi 召公奭" (Ji Shi 姬奭)
... 9 generations...
Yan Huihou 燕惠侯 865-827
Yan Xihou 燕釐侯 (Ji Zhuang 姬莊) 826-791
Yan Qinghou 燕頃侯 790-767
Yan Aihou 燕哀侯 766-765
Yan Zhenghou 燕鄭侯 (better: 燕侯(姬)鄭 Ji Zheng, Marquis of Yan) 764-729
Yan Muhou 燕穆侯 (or Mouhou 繆侯) 728-711
Yan Xuanhou 燕宣侯 710-698
Yan Huanhou 燕桓侯 697-691
Yan Zhuanggong 燕莊公 690-658
Yan Xianggong 燕襄公 657-618
Yan Huangong (1) 燕桓公 617-602
Yan Xuangong 燕宣公 601-587
Yan Zhaogong 燕昭公 586-574
Yan Wugong 燕武公 573-555
Yan Wengong (1) 燕文公 554-549
Yan Yigong 燕懿公 548-545
Yan Huigong 燕惠公 544-536
Yan Daogong 燕悼公 535-539
Yan Gonggong 燕共公 528-524
Yan Pinggong 燕平公 523-505
Yan Jiangong 燕簡公 (Ji Kuan 姬款) 504-493
Yan Xiangong 燕獻公 492-465
Yan Xiaogong 燕孝公 464-450
Yan Chenggong 燕成公 (Ji Dai 姬戴) 449-434
Yan Mingong 燕湣公 433-403
Yan Xigong 燕釐公 402-373
Yan Huangong (2) 燕桓公 372-362
Yan Wengong (2) 燕文公 361-333
Yan Yiwang 燕易王 332-321
Ji Kuai, King of Yan 燕王(姬)噲 320-312
Yan Zhaowang 燕昭王 (Ji Ping 姬平) 311-279
Yan Huiwang 燕惠王 278-272
Yan Wuchengwang 燕武成王 271-258
Yan Xiaowang 燕孝王 257-255
Ji Xi, King of Yan 燕王(姬)喜 (or Yan Jinwang 燕今王) 254-222
222 Yan destroyed by Qin

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Downfall of Qin :

The dissolving empire ended in a decade-long civil war of nobles and half-nobles that proclaimed themselves kings (Chen She, King Yin of Chu 楚隱王陳涉; Wu Chen, King of Zhao 趙王武臣; Xiang Liang, King of Wu 吳王項梁; Tian Dan, King of Qi 齊王田儋; Han Guang, King of Yan 燕王韓廣). This war ended with the defeat of Xiang Yu 項羽, "Hegemonial King of West Chu" (Xi-Chu Bawang) 西楚霸王 by Liu Bang 劉邦, King of Han 漢, who then founded the dynasty with the same name, inheriting the whole administration structure of the Qin empire.

The war between Chu 楚 and Han 漢

In the year 209 BC, several leaders rose against the suppressive government of Qin. But only two of them, Xiang Yu 項羽 (Xiang Ji 項籍), a descendant of the Chu general Xiang Yan 項燕, and a local official named Liu Bang 劉邦 "Duke of Pei" 沛公 were able to gain substantive power. Between the years 206 and 202, a war of decision took place and left the way free for Liu Bang, the founder of Han Dynasty.
The events of these years were recorded in an often cited, but lost annal book with the title "Spring and Autumn of Chu and Han" Chu Han Chunqiu 楚漢春秋.
The first table gives an overview of the rebels against Qin from 209 to 206:

Chu 楚

Chen She, Chu Yinwang 楚隱王陳涉, and his opponent Xiang Qiang 襄彊 as kings of Chu, later Jing Gou 景駒 and Xin, Chu Huaiwang 楚懷王心 called Yidi 義帝 "Righteous Emperor", a grandson of the last king of Chu (enthroned by Xiang Liang). Xiang Yu divides Chu into four kingdoms: West Chu 西楚, Hengshan 衡山, Linjiang 臨江, and Jiujiang 九江. 吳廣

Xiang 項

Xiang Liang, Lord Wuxin 武信君項梁; his son Xiang Yu 項羽 becomes ruler of Lu 魯

Zhao 趙

Wu Chen 武臣 king of Zhao; later Xie 趙王歇; Xiang Yu divides Zhao into Zhao and Dai 代.

Qi 齊

Tian Dan 田儋 king of Qi; later Tian Jia 田假 and his opponent Tian Shi 田市; other oppenents are Tian An 田安 and Tian Rong 田榮. Xiang Yu divides Qi into the kingdoms of Linzi 臨淄, Jibei 濟北 and Jiaodong 膠東.

Han 漢

Liu Bang, Duke of Pei 沛公, becomes Marquis Wuan 武安侯. Xiang Yu divides this area into the kingdoms of Han 漢, Yong 雍, Sai 塞 and Di 翟.

Yan 燕

Han Guang 韓廣 king of Yan, then of Liaodong 遼東; killed by Zang Tu 臧荼; Xiang Yu divided this area into the kingdoms of Yan and Liaodong.

Wei 魏

Wei Jiu 魏咎 king of Wei, followed by his brother Wei Bao 魏豹; this territory is divided into the kingdoms of Wei and Yin 殷.

Hann 韓

Cheng, King of Hann 韓王成; Xiang Yu divided his territory into Hann and Henan 河南.

Xiang Yu kills the last king of Qin, sacks the capital Xianyang 咸陽 and installs new kingdoms under his rule as Hegemonial King of West-Chu (Xi-Chu Bawang) 西楚霸王. The following table covers the years from 206 to 202. There are two persons of the same name: King Hann Xinn 韓王信 and the general Hann Xin 韓信 (called Marquis Huaiyin 淮陰侯).

Chu 楚

Xiang Yu kills Chu Huaiwang 楚懷王.

Xi-Chu 西楚

Hegemonial King Xiang Yu; at Gaixia 垓下 defeated by Liu Bang; Xiang Yu kills himself. For a short time in 202, general Hann Xin 韓信 is King of Chu (degraded to the rank of Marquis Huaiyin 淮陰侯 in 201; rebelled and executed in 197).

Hengshan 衡山

King Wu Rui 吳芮; surrenders to Han; installed as King of Changsha 長沙 in 202.

Xiang 項 (Linjiang 臨江)

King Gong Ao 共敖, later his son Gong Xiang 共驩 (Wei 尉) in 204; dethroned by Han in 202.

Jiujiang 九江

King Ying Bu 英布; surrenders to Han in 204; reinstalled in 203.

Zhao 趙 (Changshan 常山)

King Zhang Er 張耳; surrenders to Han in 206. Zhao Xie 趙歇 King of Zhao; destroyed by Han in 204. In 203, Zhang Er 張耳 is reinstalled as king, followed by his son Zhang Ao 張敖 in 201.

Dai 代

King Zhao Xie 趙歇; destroyed by Han. Zhao Xie becomes King of Zhao in 206 Chen Yu 陳餘 King of Dai, destroyed by Han in 204.

Qi 齊 (Linzi 臨菑)

King Tian Du 田都, later Tian Rong 田榮; Tian Jia 田假 is reinstalled by Xiang Yu, followed by his son Tian Guang 田廣; destroyed by Han in 203.

Jibei 濟北

King Tian An 田安; destroyed by Qi.

Jiaodong 膠東

King Tian Shi 田市; destroyed by Qi.

Han 漢

King Liu Bang 劉邦; after his victory over Xiang Yu Emperor of Han in 202.

Yong 雍

King Zhang Han 章邯; destroyed by Han in 205.

Sai 塞

King Sima Xin 司馬欣; surrenders to Han in 206.

Di 翟

King Dong Yi 董翳; surrenders to Han in 206.

Yan 燕

King Zang Tu 臧荼; rebels against Han, is destroyed in 203; his follower is Lu Wan 盧綰 in 202.

Liaodong 遼東

King Hann Guang 韓廣; destroyed by Yan.

Wei 魏 (Xi-Wei 西魏)

King Wei Bao 魏豹; surrenders to Han in 205 and is reinstalled as King of Wei; destroyed by Han in 205.

Yin 殷

King Sima Ang 司馬卬; surrenders to Han in 205.

Hann 韓

King Hann Cheng 韓成; later Zheng Chang 鄭昌. Liu Bang installs Hann Xinn 韓信 as king. Hann Xinn becomes King of Taiyuan 太原 in 201.

Henan 河南

King Shen Yang 申陽; surrenders to Han 206.

Green are the kingdoms surrendering to Han, the red kingdoms were destroyed by Han. Qi has conquered Jiaodong and Jibei, Yan conquered Liaodong. The decisive battle was in Gaixia 垓下 (near modern Huaiyang 淮陽/Henan).

The third table shows the fate of the few non-relative kings (yixing wang 異姓王) that were installed by Han Gaozu (Liu Bang) in 202 when he became Emperor of Han.

Jiujiang 九江 (Huainan 淮南)

King Ying Bu 英布, installed in 203; rebelled and killed in 196.

Chu 楚

Hann Xin (1) 韓信, installed in 203 as King of Qi 齊, in 202 transferred to Chu; rebelled and executed in 196.

Zhao 趙

King Zhang Er 張耳, installed in 203; followed by his son Zhang Ao 張敖 in 201; Ao is dethroned in 199.

Taiyuan 太原 (Hann 韓)

King Hann Xin 韓信 (2, King Xin of Hann), installed in 201; rebelled and escaped in the same year.

Yan 燕

Zang Tu 臧荼, replaced by King Lu Wan 盧綰, installed in 202; rebelled and escaped in 196.

Liang 梁

King Peng Yue 彭越, installed in 202; rebelled and killed in 197.

Changsha 長沙

King Wu Rui 吳芮, installed in 202; followed by son Wu Chen 吳臣 (Changsha Chengwang 長沙成王) in 201; followed by son Wu Hui 吳回 (Changsha Aiwang 長沙哀王) in 193; followed by son Wu Ruo 吳若 (Changsha Gongwang 長沙共王) in 186; followed by son Wu Chan 吳產 (Changsha Jingwang 長沙靖王) in 178; died without heir in 157.


195 盧綰反,敗之,綰亡入匈奴.衛滿亡命入朝鮮.
194 高祖之子盈即位為惠帝.衛滿逐箕準,箕氏朝鮮亡.


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Publié dans Rulers

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